Zhu J1, Guo M, Yang T, Lai X, Lei YY, He ML, Chen J, Li TY.
Objective: To investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal disorders (GID) and core symptoms or behavioral problems among the children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) . Method: Totally 328 children with ASD and 202 normal controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from August 2013 to October 2016. The information about the gastrointestinal disorders, behavioral and emotional problems was collected by using questionnaires. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) were used to assess the core symptoms of the children with ASD. Neurodevelopmental status was evaluated with Gesell Developmental Scale (GDS). These variables were analyzed by using student’s t-test and chi-square test. Result: The prevalence of GID was significantly higher in the children with ASD than in the normally developing children (49.4% (162/328) vs.25.7% (52/202), χ(2)=29.039, P=0.000), especially the symptoms of constipation (33.2% (109/328) vs. 13.9% (28/202)), diarrhea (9.5%(31/328) vs. 1.5% (3/202)), nausea and vomiting (9.5% (31/328) vs. 3.5% (7/202)), and foul defecation (16.5% (54/328) vs. 5.0% (10/202)) (all P<0.05). Among the ASD children, the prevalence of GID was similar between male and female (46.7% (133/285) vs. 46.5%(20/43), χ(2)=0.006, P=0.938), as well as among all age groups (χ(2)=1.907, P=0.862). There was no significant difference in scores of GDS in the ASD children with or without GID (all P>0.05). Compared with ASD children without GID (n=166), the ASD children with GID (n=162) got higher scores in the “Body and Object Use” of ABC scale ( (16.4±9.3) vs. (12.3±6.7) scores, t=2.258, P=0.028), and had more emotional problems (63.6% (103/162) vs. 49.4% (82/166), χ(2)=6.707, P=0.010). Moreover, the score of behavior problems questionnaire was higher in the ASD children with GID ( (35.3±16.8) vs. (16.1±13.6) scores, t=5.748, P=0.000). Conclusion: Children with ASD have higher risk of GID than the normal developing children. While the stereotyped behaviors, problem behaviors and emotional problems are severer in the ASD children with GID. Hence, it is important to provide comprehensive treatment and management for these groups of children.
Autism disorder; Behavior; Child; Gastrointestinal tract
Dr. Manish Bhatia
BHMS, BCA, M.Sc. Homeopathy (UCLAN, UK), CICH (IACH, Greece)
Dr. Manish Bhatia is the Founder Director of Hpathy.com, world’s leading homeopathy portal, serving homeopathy to more than half a million people every month. He is also Editor of Homeopathy for Everyone.
He runs a consultation office at Jaipur (Asha Homeopathy) and is one of the most well known Indian homeopaths globally. He has been practicing since 2001 and is helping Autism and other psychiatric patients since 2006. He was awarded Rajasthan’s foremost Raja Pajvan Dev Award For Excellence in the field of Medicine in 2015.
He has been working as an Asso. Professor of Organon of Medicine at S. K. Homeopathic Medical College since 2002. He was awarded with the prestigious APJ Abdul Kalam State Level Teacher’s Award in 2016. He has also given seminars and webinars in several countries of Europe, Americas and Australia.
He is the author of Lectures on Organon of Medicine Vol. I & II (English, Bulgarian, German editions), which are approved by the Central Council of Homeopathy (India) for BHMS and MD (Hom) syllabus. He is a contributing author to the book “Homeopathy and Mental Health Care: Integrative Practice, Principles and Research” and co-editor of “The Fireside Book of Homeopathy Tales.”